After rolling, several types of steel materials such as rounds, sections, pipes, and flat items are leveled or straightened using this technique. Due to residual stresses, the rolled steel material deforms during cooling after rolling and frequently has surface flaws in the cold condition, including buckles, wavy edges, camber, crossbow, coil set, and ᴍᴀɴy more. As a result, the multi-roller straightening machines flatten the rolled steel material. In this article, the straightening procedure and the straightening equipment for flat rolling mills are covered.
Plates and sheets are examples of flat items that are created through both hot and cold rolling. The products receive a precise thickness and mechanical characteristics thanks to the rolling process. However, when the material is being rolled, residual stresses and flatness faults start to emerge in the rolled products. High levels of residual stresses inside flat goods at the end of the process can encourage spring-back, which can distort the products during cutting and have an impact on the forming processes where the flat products are used.
Additionally, the rolling process itself generally cannot fulfill the flatness tolerances and material requirements of the flat products required to meet the standards, necessitating an additional step. Therefore, the roll leveling technique is used to the flat items after rolling.
A forming technique called roller straightening tries to eliminate flatness flaws and reduce residual tensions. During the procedure, a predetermined number of rolls with adjustable overlapping bend the steel material in opposite directions. By bending the material around a series of rollers to alternately stretch and compress the upper and lower surfaces, reaching its yield point, and allowing both surfaces to spring back with equal lengths, the material is straightened.
In order to reduce internal stresses and homogenize those that cannot be removed, the material is subjected to elastic-plastic deformations that cause elongation in the material. The bends and, consequently, the deflections are expected to decrease in the forward direction of the straightening process as a result of the tilt adjustment of the upper rolls.
Today, there are basically two types of straightening machines. The first class of straightening machines, often known as “straighteners” or “flatteners,” is the most popular. Typically, machines with between 5 and 11 work rollers are equipped with this setup. Depending on the material thickness and width, the roller diameters and center distances change, but straighteners and flatteners can be identified by their relatively large diameter, widely spaced rollers, which are typically not backed up.
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