Peanuts, a legume belonging to the pea family and also known as groundnut, earthnut, or goober, are farmed for their edible seeds. The peanut, a native of tropical South America, was first introduced to the tropics of the Old World quite early on. The seeds are a nutrient-dense food that is high in fat and protein. The peanut is not a genuine nut, despite the fact that it goes by several names. The plant, like other legumes, uses nitrogen-fixing bacteria to supply nitrogen to the soil, making it an especially beneficial crop for improving the soil.
The peanut is an annual plant that can either have a spreading form that is 30–45 cm high and has long branches that are ᴄʟᴏsᴇ to the ground or it can be an upright shrubby plant that is 45–60 cm high and has short branches. The pinnately compound leaves on the robust, hairy stems have two pairs of leaflets each. Golden-yellow petals of 10 mm in size are present on the blooms, which are produced in the axils of the leaves. The two or three seeds in the oblong pods, which are typically 25 to 50 mm long and have rounded ends, are condensed within the thin, netted, spongy shell. The seeds are oblong to almost spherical in shape and have a papery seed coat that is either wʜɪᴛish or dark purple in colour.
The strange habit of peanut legumes maturing underground is known as geocarpy. A strange stalk-like structure known as a peg emerges from the base of the bloom toward the soil after pollination and the flower has withered. The peg’s robust tip carries the fertilized ovules until it is well below the soil’s surface, at which point it begins to transform into the distinctive pod. Sometimes the pegs must descend 10 cm or more before their tips can bear fruit. These ᴏᴅᴅ fruits seem to act almost like roots, taking up minerals and nutrients directly from the earth. Regardless of the nutrients accessible to the roots, the pods may not develop properly if the soil around them is not adequately supplied with readily available calcium.
It takes at least five months of warm weather and 60 cm or more of rain throughout the growing season for peanuts to be produced. The best soils are sandy loams with good drainage that are covered by deep friable loam subsoils. The entire plant is dug out of the ground during harvest, with the exception of the deeper roots. The harvested plants are frequently allowed to wilt for a day before being stacked around a strong stick that has been buried upright in the ground for four to six weeks to cure the pods. To keep them out of the elements, the pods are positioned inside of each stack.
Peanuts are frequently used to make an edible oil with a high smoke point that is sold boiled or roasted. The seeds are frequently used in sweets and baked goods in Jᴀᴘᴀɴ, where they are also processed into peanut butter. In some areas, the peanut is widely used as livestock feed; when the pods are harvested, the plant’s tops are often fed as hay, though the entire plant may be used in this way. the creation of 300 different derivative items made from peanuts, such as flour, soap, and plastics.
Let’s see Jᴀᴘᴀɴ Peanut Growing Harvesting and Processing – Jᴀᴘᴀɴ Peanut Agriculture Technology Farming in the ᴀᴡᴇsome video below.
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Video resource: Matrix Farm