List all companies that make forging machines. Forging machines, such as those used in hot forging, shape metal by plastic deformation by applying compressive force and a high workpiece temperature. In the metallurgical process of hot forging, heated metal is pressed into dies under pressure to make metal pieces. In hot forging, which is a type of hot forming, a metal is plastically deformed at a temperature and strain rate where recrystallization and deformation happen simultaneously. This avoids strain hardening, which can lower ductility, cause brittle failure, and lead to structural fatigue.
Aluminum, ᴄᴏᴘper, and steel metal pieces are produced by hot forging equipment. They are suggested for deforming metals with a high ratio of formability, particularly with low- to medium-accuracy. The elimination of chemical contaminants, improved ductility, homogenized grain structure, and less scale formation are additional benefits. Less exact tolerances, the possibility of chemical reactions between the metal and its surroundings, and the possibility of the metal bending during cooling are all disadvantages.
By dropping heated metal into a punch and die that gradually compresses the item, drop forging machines create intricate shapes. This malleable metal will take the form of the punch and die voids due to the ram of the punch. Drop hammers or power hammers can be powered by electricity. The striking force of the dies and punches can be between 11,000 and 425,000 pounds, and they can be flat or V-shaped. Flash is created and needs to be trimmed because only ram is required to create that part.
Ingots, billets, bars, or preforms can all be used with open die forging machines. The workpiece is deformed while passing through flat or curved dies without the metal flow being entirely blocked. This causes the workpiece to extend while its cross-section shrinks. Lengthening and upsetting can be done by using numerous strikes. Metal components can weigh several hundred thousand kilograms and have lengths ranging from a few centimeters to thirty meters. Although open die forging machines can be used to create fairly complex shapes, they are typically used to create simple solids or hollows that require extensive machining to achieve their final shape.
For complete filling of the die, ᴄʟᴏsᴇd die forging machines do not require the production of lash. It is more important to design a good die since the metal is deformed in a hollow where extra material cannot escape. Materials and dies are heated to the same temperature by isothermal forging machines. It is typically done on superalloys in a vacuum with a tightly regulated environment to prevent oxidation. Although there is equipment for hammer and press forging, a sᴋɪʟʟed operator is needed instead of a programmable hammer.
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Video resource: Tantum Tech HD