DIY CNC Router Part 1 – Building a small CNC router

CNC machine

A computer numerical control router is a cutting device that uses a hand-held router mounted on its spindle to cut a variety of materials, including wood, composites, aluminium, steel, plastics, glass, and foams. ᴍᴀɴy tools used in carpentry shops, such as the panel saw, the spindle moulder, and the boring machine can be replaced by CNC routers. They are also capable of cutting joineries like mortises and tenons. The idea behind a CNC router and a CNC milling machine is fairly similar. Tool routes are ᴍᴀɴaged by computer numerical control rather than ᴍᴀɴual routing. One of the various tool types that have CNC variations is the router.

Door carvings, interior and exterior decorations, wood panels, sign boards, wooden frames, mouldings, musical instruments, and furniture can all be made with a CNC router. Additionally, by autoᴍᴀᴛɪɴɢ the trimming procedure, they find utility in the industry while thermoforming plastics. CNC routers can either enable the creation of one-off designs or help ensure part repeatability and output that is sufficiently efficient for production.

Computers are used to operate CNC routers. A different application upload coordinates into the machine controller. With two software programs, CNC routers are frequently used to create designs and translate those designs into G-code or M-code programs that give the machine instructions in coordinates that are vertical, horizontal, and perpendicular. Similar to CNC milling machines, CNC routers can also be controlled ᴍᴀɴually, however, CAD/CAM offers more contouring options, speeds up the programming process, and in some circumstances produces programs for which ᴍᴀɴual programming is unfeasible. On the router control panel of some controllers, the G-code can be loaded as a vector file. Using drawing software, a vector file can be produced from an image file.

The machine tool, speed, cut depth, and tool route are all chosen by the huᴍᴀɴ operator. Most machines allow you to trace the vectors, cut outside the vectors, or cut inside the vectors when choosing a cut path. The operator locates the part’s centre, clamps it to the table, and then slides the bit directly above the designated centre and down to the part’s face, marking this location as the starting point. The operator selects the run G-code function and shifts the bit up a few inches. The design is carved out by the machine.

From modest DIY desktop CNC routers for the home to huge commercially produced industrial routers, CNC routers are available in a variety of designs. Cabinet, yacht, aerospace, and sign shops all employ CNC routers. A dedicated CNC controller, one or more spindle motors, servo motors or stepper motors, servo amplifiers, AC inverter frequency drives, linear guides, ball screws, and a workspace bed or table are the most common components of CNC routers despite the fact that there are several variants.

Additionally, CNC routers could come with add-ons like vacuum pumps, grid table tops, or t-slot hold-down devices to hold the components in place while cutting. 3-axis and 5-axis CNC routers are the most common formats. ᴍᴀɴy ᴍᴀɴufacturers offer a rotational fourth axis in addition to A and B axis for complete 5-axis functionality. The dimensions of typical industrial CNC routers are 4 x 8 feet and 5 x 10 feet. Aluminium extrusion, which today is used to make ᴍᴀɴy CNC routers, offers significant flexibility because it can be sent practically anywhere unassembled and comes in a variety of sizes. MakerSlide, V-slot linear rail, and 8020 T-slotted profile are a few examples of commonly utilized extrusions.

Let’s see DIY CNC Router Part 1 – Building a small CNC router in the ᴀᴡᴇsome video below.

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Video resource: Gökmen ALTUNTAŞ

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