A flying creature, an aircraft, or a spacecraft returns to the earth during the final phase of a flight, known as a landing. Alighting is the term used when a flying object lands on water, but other terms like “landing,” “touchdown,” and “splashdown” are also frequently used. The many phases of a typical aircraft flight include taxiing, takeoff, climbing, cruising, descending, and landing.
An airport’s stable runway or heliᴄᴏᴘter landing pad, which is often built of asphalt concrete, concrete, gravel, or ɢʀᴀss, is where airplanes frequently land. If an aircraft has pontoons or a fuselage with a boat form, it can land on water. Aircraft occasionally land on snow or ice using skis.
In order to land, the object must drop at a pace that is both slower than its airspeed and slow enough to enable a soft landing. The process of landing involves slowing down and descending to the runway. Flaps, landing gear, or speed brakes can be used to increase drag or decrease thrust to achieve this speed reduction.
In order to do a flare or round-out when a fixed-wing aircraft approaches the ground, the pilot will pull back on the control column. This widens the ᴀᴛᴛᴀᴄᴋ’s angle. A tricycle gear aircraft will land on its main wheels first, while a conventional landing gear aircraft, sometimes known as a “taildragger,” will land on all three wheels simultaneously. By gradually moving the control column back, the aircraft can approach the runway at the slowest possible speed.
A safe landing can occasionally be achieved by combining different lift, propulsion, and dampening technologies. Both the Apollo Lunar Module and the Surveyor unmanned lunar probe missions employed a rocket deceleration system and landing gear to make soft landings on the moon. Parachutes and airbag landing systems have been utilized by several Soviet rockets, notably the Soyuz spacecraft, to soften the landing on the planet.
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